Intratec Chemical Process Library is the first free online encyclopedia of chemical process technologies. Our Library covers not only processes description themselves, but also the economics surrounding chemicals production, providing real-world knowledge on the production of several chemical commodities. Click here to check all chemicals covered.
In this page you will find free data about Enzymes, including:
- What are Enzymes
- How to make Enzymes
- Enzymes uses and applications
This page presents brief synopsis of Enzymes production technology, describing, in a concise way, relevant technical and economic aspects. Each manufacturing process description will consist of:
- Major process steps
- Simplified, schematic flow diagram & key equipment
- Important safety or environmental considerations
- Economic perspective, comprising capital expenditures and/or operating expenses
Onsite Enzyme Manufacture
Enzymes are proteins synthesized in living cells that act as biocatalysts for specific reactions. However, enzymes must be applied under mild conditions, since they lose their catalytic activity when subjected to heat, organic solvents or strong acids and bases.
Enzymes are industrially produced from the fermentation of microorganisms, but they can also be obtained from plant and animal sources. They offer high specificity and selectivity for reactions and substrates, and can produce enantiopure compounds (in contrast to chemical syntheses, which usually produce racemic mixtures).
Enzymes are applied in the production of food, fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals. In addition, they are used in washing processes, as well as for a wide range of analytical purposes. Alternatively, enzyme technology has been developed to improve sustainable processes that produce existing products using novel raw materials, such as biomass.
A typical process for onsite enzyme production through fermentation is described below, using the enzyme cellulase as an example. Cellulase is used in the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic material in biomass-based processes, such as the production of cellulosic ethanol. Cellulase is industrially produced by a fungus in an aerobic fermentation in the presence of a cellulase-production inducer (see flowsheet). The process shown was compiled from a technical report published by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL; Golden, Colo.; www.nrel.gov).
Glucose feedstock is mixed with water and a small quantity of cellulase, which converts part of the glucose to sophorose, a cellulase-production inducer.
The fermentation inoculum is prepared in ...
The fermentation step is conducted in ...