Intratec Chemical Process Library is the first free online encyclopedia of chemical process technologies. Our Library covers not only processes description themselves, but also the economics surrounding chemicals production, providing real-world knowledge on the production of several chemical commodities. Click here to check all chemicals covered.
In this page you will find free data about Chlorine, including:
- What is Chlorine
- How to make Chlorine
- Chlorine uses and applications
This page presents brief synopsis of Chlorine production technology, describing, in a concise way, relevant technical and economic aspects. Each manufacturing process description will consist of:
- Major process steps
- Simplified, schematic flow diagram & key equipment
- Important safety or environmental considerations
- Economic perspective, comprising capital expenditures and/or operating expenses
Chlorine Manufacture from NaCl (Chlor-Alkali)
Chlorine is among the most important chemical commodities — it is used in the manufacture of a multitude of end products (for example, plastics, solvents, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, disinfection chemicals and others), as well as in processes that produce industrial chemicals via organochlorine intermediates, such as polycarbonates, silicones, polyurethanes and others.
The diagram below illustrates the process for chlorine manufacture via the electrolysis of aqueous sodium chloride (brine) using a conventional membrane process.
Initially, recycled, depleted brine is mixed with water and re-saturated with fresh sodium chloride. Since other metal ions (such as Ca2+ and Mg2+) present in the brine would harm the membranes, the brine is treated with precipitants, so that the metals precipitate. The precipitated solids form a sludge, which is removed by settling in a clarifier. Subsequently, the clarified solution is filtered and purified by ion-exchange resins to remove residual hardness and achieve acceptable levels of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions.
The ultrapure brine and ...
Hydrogen from the electrolysis process ...
Most chlorine produced at commercial scale is ...
The total capital investment estimated to be required to construct a plant with a capacity of ...